## 7 Introduction

**Overview**

You will explore methods for evaluating the difference between variables. Comparing two groups of data using a range of t-tests will also be explored. Integration of Faith and Learning will be presented in a way that examines quantitative analysis in light of God’s plan for how you should handle challenging work.

**Learning Outcomes**

Upon successful completion of this module, you will be able to:

- Analyze the appropriate inferential statistic to compare groups.
- Evaluate and interpret a one-sample t-test to compare one group or sample to a hypothesized population mean.
- Understand the assumptions and conditions for use of the independent samples t test.
- Analyze and interpret a paired samples t test to check the reliability of a repeated measure.
- Understand your view of God’s perspective on the work involved in conducting meaningful and accurate quantitative analysis.

**Discussion Thread: Comparing Groups**

Respond to the following short answer questions from Chapter 9 of the Morgan, Leech, Gloeckner, & Barrett textbook:

D7.9.1 (a) Under what conditions would you use a one-sample t test? (b) Provide another possible example of its use from the HSB data.

D7.9.2 In Output 9.2: (a) Are the variances equal or significantly different for the three dependent variables? (b) List the appropriate t, df, and p (significance level) for each t test as you would in an article. (c) Which t tests are statistically significant? (d) Write sentences interpreting the academic track difference between the means of grades in high school and also visualization. (e) Interpret the 95% confidence interval for these two variables. (f) Comment on the effect sizes.

D7.9.3 (a) Compare the results of Outputs 9.2 and 9.3. (b) When would you use the Mann–Whitney U test?

D7.9.4 In Output 9.4: (a) What does the paired samples correlation for mother’s and father’s education mean? (b) Interpret/explain the results for the t test. (c) Explain how the correlation and the t test differ in what information they provide. (d) Describe the results if the r was .90 and the t was zero. (e) What if r was zero and t was 5.0?

D7.9.5 (a) Compare the results of Output 9.4 with Output 9.5. (b) When would you use the Wilcoxon test?

DISCUSSION ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS

The student will complete 8 short-answer discussions in this course and 1 long-answer

Integrating Faith and Learning discussion. In the thread for each short-answer discussion the

student will post short answers to the prompted questions. The answers must demonstrate

course-related knowledge and support their assertions with scholarly citations in the latest APA

format. Minimum word count for all short answers cumulatively is 200 words. The minimum

word count for Integrating Faith and Learning discussion is 600 words. For each thread the

student must include a title block with your name, class title, date, and the discussion forum

number; write the question number and the question title as a level one heading (e.g. D1.1

Variables) and then provide your response; use Level Two headings for multi part questions (e.g.

D1.1 & D1.1.a, D1.1.b, etc.), and include a reference section.

The student must then post 1 reply to another student’s post. The reply must summarize the

student’s findings and indicate areas of agreement, disagreement, and improvement. It must be

supported with scholarly citations in the latest APA format and corresponding list of references.

The minimum word count for Integrating Faith and Learning discussion reply is 250 words.

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