Write a research proposal;






1.1 Introduction


The introduction briefly overviews what the chapter contains and creates interest for reading further. It further discusses the sector/industry the study/research is focusing on. The sector could be banking or may focus on the social services in the country, etc. The introduction section should provide evidence and conditions of the existing situations to make the reader feel the urgency of the problem and the need to study it, in order solve it. The introduction section may have any number of paragraphs but should not exceed 1 page. The first paragraph shall normally give an overview of what the chapter contains and the second paragraph should discuss the sector/industry the research is focusing on.


1.2 Background to the Study


This section provides evidence and conditions of the existing situations highlighting the gap(s) to make the reader feel the urgency of the problem, the need to study it in order to solve the problem or contribute to its solution. The background gives rationale of the study and briefly interweaves this with some reviews of previous work that has been done on the topic and its current status as research and conceptual problems. If a case has been selected (e.g., company or organization, etc.), the background should be situated within this case in view of the problem being investigated. The background should also focus on the constructs/variables of your study which are in the title of your study, where, and if, this is applicable.


1.3 Research Problem/Problem Statement/Statement of the Problem


The problem statement is the focal point of the research and is usually stated in one sentence with a number of paragraphs that give more details or elaboration. In the problem statement you state: something missing in the knowledge-base, something that is wrong, something that needs to be investigated, or existing methods that no longer seem to be working and need to be redefined, etc..


The problem statement:


Presents the reason behind the study/research, i.e. what will change when this research is done or what would happen if the research is not done.

Is an existing negative state not absence of a solution.

Refers to what has been detected and needs a solution in the practical or theoretical world.

Should clearly state the nature of the problem and its known or estimated magnitude / extent.

Should be concise and brief (not more than 1 page).

General Objective, and

Specific Objectives.

General Research Question, and

Specific Research Questions

Content/Subject/Academic Area Scope

Geographical Scope

Time Scope

1.4 General Objective/Aim/Purpose


The objective refers to the general intention/goal of carrying out the study. The research objectives may be split into:


The general objective may be a general statement which explains what the research intends to accomplish.That is, it refers to the general intention or goal of the research and should spell out what the research is supposed to accomplish. Normally, the general objective has a relationship with the title of the research. Where the general objectives is too broad, it may be split into sub-objectives (or specific objectives) arising directly from the general objective/purpose/aim of the study.


The general format of an objective (general or specific) is as follows:


The goal of this research is:


To analyze………


To evaluate …….


To establish……..


To determine……


To design……….


1.5 Research Questions/Hypotheses


These are investigative questions or assumptions which guide the study. Research questions are stated to realize the general objective and specific objectives. For each stated objective there should be a corresponding research question. This means that a research question can be split into:


In case of hypotheses, they should be testable. (Hypothesis is usually null or alternate, whichever poses the investigative question).Although hypotheses can come immediately after Literature Review, they normally come after the Specific Objectives.


1.6 Significance/Importance/Relevance/Justification/Contribution


This refers to the relevance of study in terms of academic contributions and practical use that might be made of the findings. It should reflect on knowledge creation, technological or socioeconomic value to the community.


The significance of the study answers the questions:


Why is your study important?


To whom is it important?


What benefit(s) will occur If your study is done?


1.7 Conceptual Framework


This is a scheme of concepts (constructs/variables with associated attributes) which a researcher will operationalize in the study in order to achieve the set objectives. The framework is normally presented graphically (diagrammatically). The conceptual framework should predict positive results and not negative. A conceptual framework contains the researcher’s constructs that are being investigated, their relationships and or (inter-) dependencies (cause-effect relationships). It normally builds on the theoretical framework. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks may be presented graphically.


1.8 Scope


The scope provides for the boundary of the research in terms of depth of investigation, content, and sample size, geographical, time frame and theoretical coverage.The scope may be split into:


2.0 Literature Review


The section of literature review or related work describes what has already been done in the area and demonstrates one’s understanding of the problem and related issues. It deals with the analysis of existing literature on the subject with the objective of revealing contributions, weaknesses and gaps. In literature review one attempts to synthesize previous work rather than merely recount what has been done. The theoretical framework model may be explained in more details in the literature review.


There are many ways of organizing the literature review:


Thematic organization: One approach is to organize the literature review according to the themes, e.g., the literature review may also be organized according to the research objectives of the study. Grouping themes or topics of research together, helps demonstrate the types of topics that are important to your research.


Chronological Organization:In a chronological review, the sources of grouped and discussed in order of their appearance (usually publication). It highlights the changes in research in the field and a specific topic over time.


Citation in the literature review should be according to the approved format, i.e., Harvard citation system.


3.0 Research Methodology


This is a detailed description of selected methodology and should be presented in unambiguous terms.


The section comprises:


The methodology chapter explains how you’re going to carry out the research. In general the methodology is concerned with:


i). Research Design: which describes the nature and pattern the research intends to follow e.g. whether it is qualitative or quantitative, historical, descriptive survey, experimental or quasi experimental and location (optional), case study, cross-sectional, etc.


ii). Description of the Geographical Area and where population of the study exists (optional).


iii). Population and Sample Selection: Description of the population from which samples will be selected.


iv). Sampling Strategies: by which the researcher will select representative elements/subjects from the population.


v). Research Instrument Design: explaining which research instruments will be used in data collection and how they will be designed.


vi). Data Collection Methods: explaining the methods that will be used to collect data including instruments and procedures to be used in the research described.


vii). Reliability and Validity Research Instruments: Data quality control, which refers to reliability and validity of data and instruments.


viii). Measurements, which refer to the formulae or scales in the study.


ix). Data analysis Methods: which involves organization and interpretation of the data generated.


x) Ethical Considerations: explaining ethical issues related to respondents, their disclosure of information and their acceptance of, or willingness to be used as subjects, etc.


Use the following variables. Add any other if you have any suggestions.


Dependent Variable:

Tendering Process Improvement (TPI):


Adherence to project timelines

Quality of project outcomes

Stakeholder satisfaction

Independent Variables:

Technology Adoption (TA):


Use of digital platforms in tendering

Integration of e-procurement systems

Implementation of specialized tendering software

Employee Training and Development (ETD):


Training programs for staff involved in tendering

Skill development for tendering professionals

Knowledge enhancement in tendering regulations and processes

Moderating Variable:

Leadership Effectiveness (LE):


Leadership commitment to tendering process improvement

Clear communication and guidance from leadership

Empowerment of employees involved in tendering

Outcome Variable:

Competitive Advantage (CA):


Improved market positioning

Increased success rate in winning tenders

Enhanced reputation and trust among stakeholder


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