Paraphrasing Lab Report about Wave Polarization

I just want to paraphrase a one page lab report. The experiment is about generating linearly polarized light using a laser pointer and a polarizing plate called the polarizerI lab report is attachedThis lab experiment was intended to study the behavior of the incident light on the
photodiode. Mainly, the experiment was concerned with the intensity of polarized light
coming from the analyzer to the photodiode. This concept is about malus’s law, which
was verified at the end of the experiment. For the first part of the lab, we had to identify
the different components needed to assemble the laser and polarize it. The four essential
components to carry out the experiment were the laser, polarizer, analyzer, and
photodiode. All the other supplementary components such as posts were used to set up
the experiment. The order in the assembly was (Laser, Polarizer, Analyzer, photodiode).
Once assembled, we had to make sure that the laser falls onto the photodiode. In order to
do this, we held the height of the fixed and adjusted the height of the other components
such as the laser mount and the analyzer. We used a piece of card to make sure that a
focused light falls straight onto the lens of the photodiode. At the end of this part, a
resistor was connected in the breadboard and connected with the photodiode to measure
the voltage through it. Importantly, the current through the resistor was generated from
the photodiode due to the incident light on it. However, we were not having results on the
oscilloscope for the measured voltage. This was due to the light being not fully directed
into the lens of the photodiode. After making adjustments, the voltage on the oscilloscope
was shown to be 50V at 0 degree. In part 2 of the lab, we had to define coordinate axis on
the analyzer. The coordinate system used on the analyzer was very similar to the
spherical coordinate system with angles theta and phi. Phi is the rotational angle on the
xy plane, while theta is the angle from the Z-axis on the analyzer. The X-axis was the
direction of the laser. This particular system and orientation was used to make the
verification of malus’s law easier where we have to identify the orientation of
polarization axis of the polarizer. In the last part of the lab, we verified malus’s law,
which relates the angle between the polarization axis of the analyzer and polarizer to the
light intensity incident on the photodiode. To measure the orientation of the polarization
axis at which the maximum intensity occurs, we tested the incident light with rotated
angles on the analyzer. In particular, we fixed the angle Phi at 270 and 90, and kept
changing theta in the range ( 0 to 90) for each fixed Phi. The angle of the polarization
axis of the polarizer turned out to be ( 90 ( Theta) , 90 (Phi ).
Based on the plot of polarization angle Vs normalized intensity, it can be seen that the
measured result agrees with the theoretical calculation. The shape the graphs in the plot is
the same, which validates malus’s law. However, the measured results slightly differ at
the ends of the axis of the polarization angle based on the graph. The theoretical intensity
starts to increase before the measured intensity at the left end .The polarization angle is
the angle between the axis of the polarizer and analyzer.
Although the overall result of this experiment is acceptable, the measured result had
certain percent errors that caused it to be slightly off from the theoretical results. To
improve the accuracy, we can test the incident light with a smaller scale of angles. In
other words, instead of 10 degree difference between angles, we can use 5 degree
difference to have better accuracy. Also, the posts should be adjusted carefully such that
the light only goes to the middle of the lens of the photodiode.

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