Discussion Board Responses

1-Find the attachment2-Respond to each post with a FULL Single-space paragraph3-A reliable reference for each paragraph4-Respond DO NOT summarize.5-Very important; you have to include your thoughts6-APA style1234567-
Find the attachment
Respond to each post with a FULL Single-space paragraph
A reliable reference for each paragraph
Respond DO NOT summarize.
Very important; you have to include your thoughts
APA style
At least 12-150 words each
Course: Healthcare Management
The assignment was:
“What are some of the biggest challenges in developing and implementing a preparedness
exercise in a hospital setting?
What differences/similarities exist between hospital and municipal preparedness exercises?”
Note from Professor: I want to continue to challenge you in your DB responses, go deeper, provide
examples to support your position.
One of the significant challenges facing the development and implementation of preparedness
exercise in the hospital setting is the lack of a proper support system. The lack of appropriate
transport systems that will help in the transportation of disaster victims and lack of order in the
dissemination of disaster funds necessary to cater for disaster strikes are some of the issues that
may discourage the preparedness of hospitals in times of disaster (Yih, 2016).
Secondly, many clinics do not see the need for implementing a hospital disaster plan
(HDP) or hospital disaster risk reduction (HDRR) programs. The reason is mainly because of
authoritative or monetary issues. Apart from that, several clinical chiefs do not feel intrigued when
it comes to the running of the programs. Medical disaster readiness in clinics should be completed
to accommodate for possibilities of disasters (Yih, 2016).
Thirdly, the security of health infrastructure plays a significant role in the implementation
and preparedness of hospitals for disaster. The flexibility of a calamity substructure is a vital
certification for human services associations to maintain their motivations despite disasters. They
can accomplish this since they are fit to retain and oppose sways in catastrophe. The reliable system
incorporates framework reinforcement as well as physical quality (Yih, 2016).
There are differences as well as similarities between municipal preparedness and hospital
exercises. Both of the systems recognize people from the network with crucial needs through
contemplating youngsters, seniors as well as individuals from the web who have unique needs and
correspond with the initiative to make clear that an arrangement is set up in which will benefit the
parties (Michael K. Lindell, 2006).
Volunteers from both use all correspondence channels to choose people from the system
to partake in emergency preparedness gatherings. Both of them help each other in times of disaster
by sharing assets that may help in tackling a disaster. Both train locals on domestic disaster
preparedness by making and progressing educational materials that offer inhabitants tips and best
practices for making sure the needs of the people are secure (Michael K. Lindell, 2006).
The practice is one of the most vital aspects of emergency preparedness. Hospitals can
have preparedness plans already put in place, but only after f thorough drills testing can the
management identify any gaps or areas that need to be strengthened. One of the most efficient
ways of testing emergency plans is conducting emergency exercises. They are essential in
ensuring that all hospital staff has proper preparation to face disasters and emergencies as well as
access the adequacy of the available resources. However, the hospitals face several challenges in
their attempts to carry out these preparedness exercises, as discussed below.
Insufficient funding and staffing shortage is one of the significant challenges that
hospitals face while carrying out emergency preparedness exercises. Some hospitals, especially
the smaller facilities, have complicated financial situations and struggle to meet all their financial
demands (Berger, 2006). The activities may require finances that the hospitals might not be able
to fund due to their budgetary limitations. Also, some are very much short-staffed, especially
public health centers (Toner, 2017). As such, this makes it very difficult for those hospitals to
carry out the exercises as required effectively.
Another challenge that the hospitals face is time constraints. Emergency preparedness
exercises are thorough activities that quite often take a considerably large amount of
time (Burstein, 2008). They include tasks that require good coordination, communication and
involves almost every staff in the hospital. However, not every hospital has much time to spare;
since some are already struggling to attend to their patients.
Both work closely with the local community. For any emergency plan to be
successful, the hospital has to take into consideration partnering with the
immediate local community to react to disasters and emergencies adequately.
Both recognize the individuals with special needs and put into place measures to
ensure that they are given the priority and handled with care.
Both have the same objective of reducing the risk in the event of emergencies or
disasters and increase the levels of preparedness
Both have the intention of enhancing the skills and knowledge of the responders
to disasters or emergencies.
One key difference is that municipal preparedness exercises target emergency
preparedness for all the members of the public living within the respective areas
while hospital exercises are only within the hospital setting.
The activities involved in the preparedness exercises are also different. For
example, in hospitals, some of the events that are affected include clinical and
surgical decontamination plans that are not included in the municipal
preparedness exercises.
The assignment was:
“Discuss chemical dependency as either a primary or secondary concern for disaster
management. List three potential concerns and identify a possible solution for
each. Choose and defend which one is the primary solution.”
Chemical dependence is a serious problem in a post disaster context. It is
particularly serious considering chemical dependence requires opioid substitution
treatment (OST) which according to Blake, & Lyons, (2016) can be problematic. People
with pre-existing conditions like an opioid related disorder are increasingly vulnerable
and are more likely to experience poor health after a disaster. A disaster as Blake, &
Lyons, (2016) shows amplifies the vulnerabilities of individuals with chemical
dependency. There are no resources that are often used to enable coping are not
There are various concerns that should be considered for the population. First
Blake, & Lyons, (2016) shows how communication and access to treatment is disrupted
post disaster. Giving an example of Hurricane Katrina, Blake, & Lyons, (2016) shows
how the disruption of treatment and communication with treatment programs can be
solved. In New Orleans, clients received dosages at home, treating them with guest
dosages. Treatment should only be reserved for people demonstrating symptoms of
withdrawal as Blake, & Lyons, (2016) shows.
A second problem that Blake, & Lyons, (2016) highlights is the verification of
dosages and the status of clients. There are regulatory agencies that control the
administration of treatment. For instance, for methadone treatment, the likelihood of
abuse means stricter regulations. Treatment disruptions due to regulatory barriers is a
concern. Blake, & Lyons, (2016) suggests coping by lowering the dosage to make
medications last and medication can be accessed across relocated clinics.
Further, there is increased demand for treatment for chemical dependent patients
following a disaster, which strains the system. Immediately following a disaster, Blake,
& Lyons, (2016) highlights how admissions to programs soars and hence difficulty in
accessing treatment. Blake, & Lyons, (2016) shows how Katrina survivors were treated
for symptoms of withdrawal considering methadone prescriptions are prohibited
without registration. Moreover, prescriptions can be written and taken to local
pharmacies for security reasons.
The primary solution of treating withdrawal symptoms rather than discontinuing
the treatment entirely is crucial. Since OST dosages during a disaster are problematic,
clients can be forced to use street drugs to prevent from suffering the withdrawal
symptoms. Continuity of treatment is crucial in OST since any interruptions can result
in the risk of overdose.
With chemical dependency, people continue to use drugs even after the significant problems
related to their use have developed. A majority of the chemically dependent people want to stop,
but they cannot because their bodies are chemically dependent on the drugs and alcohol to
operate. As such, this threatens the smooth functioning and peaceful development of societies,
and for this reason, it is a potential concern for disaster management around the world. Possible
concerns are Effect on a person’s health, Compromised government. Traffickers corrupt officials
to continue with their criminal activities, Criminal offenses.
Possible solutions
Health- Universal prevention programs should be initiated, aiming at providing the skills to make
healthy choices and decisions in life. For those who started the abuse but yet to succumb to
dependence, screening and treatment should be initiated. For those who are already addicted,
treatment with behavioral intervention should be done. Besides, impact on governance- Policies
and initiative against drug trafficking should be integrated into government development
programs in all countries and, at the same time, strengthening government institutions to share
the responsibilities of eradicating drug trafficking.
Criminal offenses- Social programs not directly connected to chemical dependency like
vocational training programs can be used as a target to reach young people who are at risk of
becoming dependent and hence committing a crime. In addition to that, intervention to those
vulnerable to lack of food, clothing and shelter can reap benefits since some people resolve to
drug trafficking and abuse due to lack of these basic needs.
Primary Solution
Policies and initiatives against drug trafficking should be integrated into government
development programs in all countries. Because of this, there will be nothing to abuse hence no
Course: Logistic Management for Disasters
The assignment was:
“Look at some recent disasters or Humanitarian events, such as the Ebola outbreak or
the Haiti earthquake of 2010. From your readings, attempt to cite an example of how
political influence can obstruct effective disaster operations. Briefly comment on what
impact NGO’s may have- good or bad- in politically unstable environments.”
Disasters that occur globally highlight the essence of logistical activities and supply chain
management. Most disasters find countries unprepared because of the political interference that
appears to obstruct successful emergency operations. Governments should prepare adequately to
handle crises by ensuring proper supply chain management and meaningful political proposals for
disaster management. Smith and Flores (2010) reveal that a majority of Republicans lost their seats
in 2006 and 2008 following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The major reason is the lack of trust among
citizens that the leaders could handle another disaster successfully in the future. As such, a lack
of political goodwill interferes with effective disaster operations.
Democratic governments act according to citizen demands and expectations. However,
that is not achieved, especially when politicians do not value popular support. The inability to
safeguard citizens following a disaster denies politicians an opportunity for representation (Smith
et al., 2010). A lack of sensitivity towards casualties after a disaster is evident among
nondemocratic leaders. As such, the extent to which citizen protection is attained during disasters
is minimal. Politicians look into the interests of immediate constituents while considering the
needs of others as less significant.
Disasters in areas with high political sensitivity are likely to threaten an autocrat unlike
massive causality events elsewhere. The obsession to maintain power along with control over relief
funds among autocrats impedes effective disaster operations since high casualty events do not
attract any attention (Smith et al., 2010). Instead, these leaders focus on the funding that is
sufficient to attract supporting elites. The case of democrats is different since a replacement is
imminent whenever there is a failure to prevent natural disasters from causing a calamity.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have a negative impact on politically unstable
countries. Since the operations are not for profit, NGOs are expected to be politically independent.
However, they maintain operation through government funding, private sources, other businesses,
and institutions. NGOs, therefore, do not have the capacity to institute political changes in unstable
countries since its leaders and the citizens can do that (Nightingale, 2017). The best way to restore
political stability is by giving aid so that the people can gain skills to control and have the ability
or power to introduce the desired change. Moreover, a significant achievement is to empower
people to make the changes that they want to see.
Political influence may be defined as the general political environment within a
specific government. It has a direct impact on how natural disasters rock countries in
case of an occurrence. Governments cannot prevent disasters from happening, but
they can prepare for them. The policies set have a significant role in the safety of its
citizens. For example, controlling the quality of structures being erected in the state.
An earthquake that happened in Haiti had a significant number of casualties as
compared to an earthquake that occurred in Chile (“Disaster Politics”, 2020). The
disparity was brought about by the availability of a body that governs the quality of
constructions in Chile. This prevented immediate damage to the infrastructure after
the earthquake.
In democratic countries, leaders tend to prepare for disasters because they need
to earn the confidence of large portions of the population so that they may stay in
power. They prepare for disaster by enforcing specific building codes and making
sure that competent administrators run bureaucracies. When politicians fail to deliver
during disaster times, they mostly lose their jobs. For example, in 1999, when Turkey
experienced two significant earthquakes, and a lot of people died, the Prime minister
almost lost his job because of shoddily constructed houses (“Disaster Politics”, 2020).
Non-democratic countries usually have a high number of casualties because the
government does not respond to disaster swiftly. The leaders know that they may still
keep their thrones despite neglecting their duties.
NGOs have a minimal impact in a politically unstable environment. They
require direct support from the government to fully function in case of a disaster. For
example, after the earthquake in Haiti, leaders were stealing international aid, and
even distributors were demanding sexual favors in exchange for food (“Disaster
Politics”, 2020). In such an environment, it would be so difficult for an NGO to

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