answer the questions

please download the file down below only select the right answers 12 questions total thank you12 questions total please don’t change the numbers
The answers marked in yellow are wrong
Mark the right answers with green please
Question 2
1. Of the following, which is the MOST complicated marketing channel for consumer
products?
Wholesaler channel
Retailer channel
Agent/broker channel
Direct channel
Question 6
1. Which is NOT considered nonstore retailing?
Restaurant
Shop-at-home networks
Direct retailing
Automatic vending
Question 10
1. Which factor is deemed the MOST important for manufacturers of upscale products in
choosing a marketing channel?
Desire to control positioning
Delicacy of the product
Complexity of the product
Managerial resources
Question 18
1. _____________ is a retail business where the operator is granted a license to operate
and sell a product under the brand name of a larger supporting organizational structure.
Broker
Independent retailer
Franchise
Chain store
Question 20
1. Which is NOT true about relationship marketing?
At the highest level of relationship marketing, the firm uses financial, social, as
well as structural bonds.
It is usually more costly to hang on to existing customers than to attracting new
ones.
The idea of relationship marketing is to develop strong loyalty by creating
satisfied customers.
A more formalized relationship developed with customers allows company to
better serve them.
2 points
Question 21
1. Which of the following about services is NOT correct?
The demand for services in the US economy is expected to decline.
Changes in US demographics provide much demand for services.
Services will contribute to growth of many new jobs into the future.
Services cannot be physically possessed and involve a deed, a performance, or an
effort.
Question 23
1. Which is the MOST important purpose of branding?
Repeat sales
Satisfaction with product
New-product sales
Product identification
Question 26
1. ________________ are also considered new products and include the existing products
that have been changed to form new perception with the current or new market
segment.
Repositioned products
New-to-the-world products
Additions to the existing product lines
Discontinuous innovations
Question 28
1. In what stage of the product life cycle where promotion strategy should focus on
informing consumers about the product category’s potential benefits?
Growth stage
Maturity stage
Introductory stage
Decline stage
Question 43
1. Which characteristic would very likely contribute to the slow rate of acceptance and
diffusion of a new product?
A product that is considered truly new and requires new product knowledge
A product with observable benefits
A product that is simple and easy to use
A product that can be tried on a limited basis
Question 46
1. ____________________ is used when manufacturer tries to have the product available
in every outlet where potential customers might want to buy it.
Intensive distribution
Exclusive distribution
Dual distribution
Selective distribution
Question 50
1. Which is NOT accurate regarding characteristics of services that distinguish them from
goods?
Because of the involved experience, evaluating the quality of services is easier
than evaluating the quality of goods.
Because services have greater variability of inputs and outputs, they tend to be
less standardized and uniform than goods.
Services are perishable, meaning they cannot be stored, warehoused, or
inventoried.
Unlike goods, services are generally sold, produced, and consumed at the same
time.

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The female entrepreneur: Zaha Hadid.

report about The female entrepreneur: Zaha Hadid. all requirements attached and information included. please stick to the powerpoint content in using the requirements.Entrepreneurship: A Mindset
• Entrepreneurship is more than the mere creation of business:
– Seeking opportunities
– Taking risks beyond security
– Having the resilience to push an idea through to reality
• Entrepreneurship is an integrated concept that permeates an
individual’s business in an innovative manner.
What is an Entrepreneurial MindSet ???
Calculated risk taker
Innovative
Competitive
Self-confident
Creative
Vision
Demanding
Problem solving skills
Strong drive to achieve
Goal-oriented behaviour
Tolerance for failure
Tolerance for ambiguity
Persistence
Highly reliable
Common Characteristics of Entrepreneurs
• Commitment, determination,
and perseverance
• Drive to achieve
• Opportunity orientation
• Initiative and responsibility
• Persistent problem solving
• Seeking feedback
• Internal locus of control
• Tolerance for ambiguity








Calculated risk taking
Tolerance for failure
High energy level
Creativity and Innovativeness
Vision
Self-confidence and optimism
Independence
Team building
The Entrepreneurial Personality





A personality type
The ‘hero’ myth
The social misfit
Possessor of personality traits
Social development models
The Heroic Myth Persists
‘The heroic myth begins with the hero’s humble birth, his rapid rise to
prominence and power, his conquest of the forces of evil, his vulnerability to
the sin of pride and finally his fall through betrayal or heroic sacrifice’.
Perhaps the myth explains why so many entrepreneurs live under a great
amount of tension. They feel they are living on the edge, that their success
will not last (their need for control and their sense of distrust are
symptomatic of this anxiety) but they have also an overriding concern to be
heard and recognized — to be seen as heroes.’
Kets de Vries
Personality Theories of
Entrepreneurship
• Personality (traits) explains individual’s actions
• Common traits = achievement, motivation, risk-taking propensity, desire
for control.
• Psychodynamic approaches
– Instinctive drives – ego – superego tensions
– Behaviour from force within – unconscious mind – early childhood
crucial
– Dislikes authority, suppressed aggression (from unhappy family
backgrounds)
• Social psychological approaches
– Behaviour constrained by contextual factors, social realities
The Emergence of the Trait Approach
‘Statements by government officials, business leaders, and
professors of entrepreneurship reflect the opinion that
entrepreneurial activity will help the nation to re-energise its
economic development and regain its competitive edge in world
markets’ (Sexton, 1988; p5)
The Trait Approach
• A ‘personality characteristic’ is an enduring feature of a person,
an underlying trait that produces behavioural consistency
regardless of situation (Shaver, 1995)
• There is an underlying assumption that within the
‘entrepreneur’ there resides an inherent, permanent and
relatively stable set of personality characteristics
• ‘once an entrepreneur, always an entrepreneur’ (Gartner, 1988;
p12)
Why focus on defining Entrepreneurial
Traits?
• To distinguish entrepreneurs from the rest of society,
particularly successful from unsuccessful ones
• To ‘pick winners’ – immense practical value in being able to
identify entrepreneurs
• To develop an entrepreneurial profile that provides an
effective selection instrument for those parties with a
financial interest in entrepreneurship
• To enable the identification and encouragement of a long
term supply of a successful entrepreneurial class
The Trait/Psychological Approach
• Need for achievement
• Need for power
• McClelland, 1961
• McClelland, 1961; Watkins, 1976
• Need for affiliation
• McClelland, 1961; Wainer and
Rubin, 1969
• Risk-taking propensity
• Drucker, 1985; Osborne, 1995;
Kets de Vries, 1996
• Locus of control
• Rotter, 1966
The Trait Approach
• Commitment/ determination
• McClelland and Winter, 1969
• Leadership
• Initiative/ drive/enthusiasm
• Litzinger, 1965; Moss Kanter,
1983
• McClelland and Winter, 1969,
• Tolerance of ambiguity &
uncertainty
• Hornaday and Bunker, 1970;
Sexton and Bowman-Upton
• Realistic
• Schrage, 1965
• Vision
• Wickham, 1998
The Trait Approach
• Confidence
• Brockhaus, 1975; Gibb, 1993
• Need for autonomy
• Watkins, 1976; Collins et al., 1964
• Innovativeness
• Schumpeter, 1934, 1965; Drucker,
1985
• Decision making
• Judgement
• Communication Abilities
• Scanlan, 1984
• Hornaday and Abound, 1971
• Carson et al., 1995
Single Trait Approaches: Achievement
Motivation (n-Ach)
•Defined as a desire to do well for the sake of an inner
feeling of personal accomplishment.
•A desire to excel.
•To have personal responsibility for solving problems.
•To achieve a goal in relation to a set of standards.
Characteristics of nAch Entrepreneurs
• Decisions with moderate degree of risk
• Belief that one’s ability will influence the attainment of a goal
• Perception that probability of success in obtaining a goal is
high
• Need for feedback
• Capacity to plan ahead
• Desire to take personal responsibility for decisions
• An interest in excellence for its own sake
• An interest in concrete results from decisions
However……..
• Chell et al (1991: 39) conclude that:
‘despite the claim of empirical support, there are lingering
doubts as to the predictive power of the achievement motive’
Single Trait Approach: Risk Taking
Propensity
• “Entrepreneurs enjoy the excitement of a challenge but
they do not gamble. Entrepreneurs avoid low risk
situations because there is a lack of challenge and avoid
high-risk situations because they want to succeed. They
like achievable challenges” (Meredith et al, 1982:25)
Risk-Taking Propensity
• Entrepreneurs have been described as ‘moderate’ risk-takers; who
take ‘calculated risks’ (Timmons et al, 1985).
• A complex issue,
regarding an individual’s perception of risk:
‘Perhaps in some instances, as the entrepreneur becomes more
aware of his business environment, he realises that the venture has
been more risky than he originally thought’ (Brockhaus, 1980; p512)
• Perceived
context more important determinant of risk-taking than
personality
https://www.facebook.com/innocourage
Risk + Innovation
High risk aversion
Low risk aversion
Highly-innovative
Dreamer
Entrepreneur
Not innovative
Stuck
Gambler
Risk in Entrepreneurship
o History of entrepreneurship is history of concepts of
risk (from Say, Cantillon and the Mercantilists to
Knight, Schumpeter and beyond)
o Entrepreneurial personality/traits – risk taking?
o Culture and entrepreneurship – attitudes to risk?
o Entrepreneurial cognition – perception and
management of risk
o The ‘risk capital’ industry – VC as the risk-bearer
o Prescription: higher entrepreneurship associated with
greater risk acceptance; entrepreneurial returns as
the return to risk bearing
Locus of Control
The psychologist Rotter (1966) developed personality measure of
‘locus of control’ – which regards the degree to which people
believe they are in control of their own destinies:
High internal locus of control: Individuals have strong belief that they
are in charge of their own destiny.
High external locus of control: Individuals feel events are outside their
control and are the result of luck, chance, fate or powerful others –
‘things happen to me’
(see Brockhaus, 1982).
Methodological Criticisms of Trait Theory
•Trait based studies basically a ‘snapshot’ of entrepreneurs at a
certain point in time, within a certain business and context,
therefore making generalisation difficult
• Diverse samples
• Startling number of traits associated with the entrepreneur.
In Reality…….
• ‘A “psychological profile” of the entrepreneur assembled from these
studies would portray someone larger than life, full of contradictions,
and conversely, someone so full of traits that (s)he would have to be a
sort of generic “Everyman”’ (Gartner, 1988, p21).
Philosophical Criticisms of Trait Theory
• Stability
• Consistency
• Internality
The Contribution of Trait Approach
•Emphasises an important message – that entrepreneurship is made
up of individuals – ‘impossible to discern the dancer from the dance’
(Carland et al, 1988)
‘If more research is desired about small business ventures, then one must
learn more about the individuals who create and manage them, because
the two are inextricably bound’
(Carland et al, 1988; p34).
Social or Demographic Approach
• Certain stimulants within an Entrepreneur’s social environment may
activate entrepreneurial activity
• Analysis of family history
• Age
• Education
• Occupation of parents
• Childhood experiences
• Birth order
• Religion and culture
• Work experience
Parental self employment and entrepreneurial
prosperity of their offspring
Abundant empirical evidence that parental self employment has a significant
positive influence on their off spring’s propensity to become self employed
‘entrepreneurs’ children tend to both inherit family firms and are in general
more willing to start up their own businesses’ (Niittykangas & Tervo,
2005:320)
Many entrepreneurs are family products
How does this Influence Operate?
• Exposure mechanisms: those children exposed to self employment are
more likely to regard it as an alternative to conventional employment
(Caroll & Mosakowski, 1987:576)
• Closure mechanism: self employed parents may facilitate their children’s
access to social and financial capital which may consequently facilitate
their entry into self-employment (Sorenson, 2007)
Role Models
• Learning can occur via their observation of behaviours in others referred
to as role models (Bandura, 1977)
• Having role models who exemplify possible career choices is a critical
aspect of an individual’s development including career choices (Miers et
al., 2007)
• Parents are important role models especially with regards to instilling
values and ethics in adolescence and adulthood (Halby, 2003)
• Negative role models vs. positive role model
Key Findings of GEM Global Report
2016
KSA
Ireland
Perceived Opportunities
75.8%
39.4%
Perceived capabilities
69.3%
45%
Fear of Failure
39%
40.9%
High status to successful
entrepreneurs
92.3%
80.3%
Entrepreneurship as a good career
choice
86.8%
52.6%
Total early-stage Entrepreneurial
activity (TEA)
9.4%
9.3%
Psychodynamic Model (Kets de Vries)
• Behaviour originates from the unconscious
• Most behaviour is goal-directed
• Personality is developed in early childhood
• A person at the crossroads
Psychodynamic Forces







Environmental turbulence
Perception of rejection
High perception of control
Anger, hostility, guilt
Identity confusion
The “reactive” mode
Reluctance to delegate
Entrepreneurship as Action – Behavioural
Approach
• Psych studies treat entrepreneur as disconnected from context
• Individuals not distinct from their activities – they are part of and create
the systems within which they are situated
• Focus on “what the entrepreneur does”, not “who the entrepreneur is”
(Gartner, 1988)
• This view leaves open the possibility of developing entrepreneurship in
individuals
• Entrepreneurs “made” not “born” (Chell, 2001)
Entrepreneurship as Action -Behavioural
Approach




As a process, not an attribute of a person (Stevenson and Jarillo, 1990)
An individual is not always entrepreneurial, may be team-effort
Necessity vs. opportunity entrepreneurship
Innovations as a response to the need for making un-programmed
decisions
• Transcends the limits imposed by the owner manager
• Possible at any stage of the life cycle of a business enterprise (Handy,
2004)
Necessity Vs Opportunity
Entrepreneurship
• Necessity based entrepreneurship
– Individuals start businesses because they feel they have no
other choice
– Recession has prompted an increase in necessity driven
start-ups
• Opportunity based entrepreneurship
– where entrepreneurs may be exploiting the potential for
new market creation
Cognitive Approach
• Originally such studies aimed to focus on “what the entrepreneur does”
not “who the entrepreneur is”
• Entrepreneurs are seen as having certain schemas or grouping concepts
in their mind that allow the entrepreneur to examine the environment
and find existing opportunities
• However, now focus on “special thinking”
• Still focuses on entrepreneur as having special abilities rather than
focusing on the process of entrepreneurship
• Impossible to develop such “schemas” need a different approach
A Holistic Approach
• Carland et al (1988:37) who states ‘some of us focus on the people: some
of us focus on the organisation. All viewpoints are needed. Some of us see
entrepreneurs as trees, others as snakes, others as ropes, others as walls.
This is as it should be. By comparing and debating our findings, we come
to a greater understanding of the whole’
To Conclude
• Static character of entrepreneurial traits precludes notion that
entrepreneurs can learn and develop as they manage their business
• More useful to think of these traits as aspects of the entrepreneurial
character, whatever that may be, which individuals possess in
different degrees at different stages in their personal development
• Better to conceptualise entrepreneurship as a dynamic, process-based
phenomenon where there exists a spectrum or continuum of
entrepreneurial behaviour and beliefs – some people more
entrepreneurial than others
The female entrepreneur: Zaha Hadid.
The purpose of this is to develop a report about the person an entrepreneur whom perceived to be a role
model outlined above. The report will be approx. 2000 words.
In this report you will be required to discuss the following;

Background of the entrepreneur, the industry and the company that he/she created
Characteristics/traits of the entrepreneur evident
Comparison of the entrepreneur to academic entrepreneurship theory
Challenges which the entrepreneur encountered during the early stages of new venture
creation
Mistakes which the entrepreneur may have made during their career
Main competitors of the new venture created and methods by which the entrepreneur
overcame these (or did he/she)
Strategies employed by the entrepreneur to gain success
Current threats or opportunities for the entrepreneur and his/her company (mention her
contributes in KSA)
Future prospects for the entrepreneur
A key aspect of this report will be to apply your knowledge of the entrepreneur to academic
entrepreneurship theory.
This requires the use of multiple sources in order to document the entire career trajectory of the
entrepreneur.
This will entail a selection of the following sources;

Journal articles relating to entrepreneurial theory and practice
Industry reports (industry, competitor, company)
Newspaper articles
Interviews
Radio or TV broadcasts
Etc.

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3.2 – Discussion: Collateral Learning

In light of the
material presented (which is attached below), research the concept of Collateral Learning and its value
to online education. Write a short essay 2-pages, with at least two reference,
also in APA 7th edition format on this topic using your own
experiences and beliefs to support or reject the importance of Collateral
Learning in an online learning environment. Also discuss how it has enhanced or
detracted in your personal online learning experiences. Maker sure there are
plenty of paraphrasing and citations throughout the paper. INTRODUCTION
 Society, education and schooling
 Dynamic, changing society
 Processing social-educational priorities
 National Task Force reports on education
 CONCLUSION
2
– Schools influence society, and society shapes the
schools and their curricula
– Society and students today has a large diversity in the
following:
– Customs
– Beliefs
– Values
– Languages
– Religions
– Innovation
3
 Education and schools effect society, information
taught is valued by society
 For Dewey, education was meant to transmit and
transform society
 Curricula shapes and indirectly socialize students
4
 The Society and People in America
 Diversity: ethnical groups, origin, tradition and
economic level
 Similar behaviors, attitudes and outlooks define the
American
 Educated in a similar way, live by labor, common
economical tasks, diet, language, recreational habits
5
 “Work hard and you will succeed”
 Achievement more important than inheritance
 “The person with the most toys wins”
 Self-gratification more important then welfare of others
6
 A hard working people that judge a person by their work
 Looks at time as money
 Believe in equality, no one is better than anyone else
 Equal educational opportunities, with flexible
curriculum to fit individual
7
 There is a rapid rate of change in society today due to
 Ethnic diversity
 Information explosion
 Modification of behaviors
 Altered values
8
 Role of school
 Should the school mirror the society or should it try to
shape the society?
 Schools are bureaucratic and conservative institutions
 Usually change in scientific, commercial and industrial
aspects come first
 The last 50 years has not brought much change to our
schools: instructional methods
9
 Rate and direction of change
 Last 60 lifetimes: communication in writing
 Last 6 lifetimes: the printed word
 Last 2 lifetimes: use of engine
 Last lifetime: electricity, population 5 billion
HUMAN OVERLOAD?
10
 Educational lag
 Is typically 20 years between school and society
 Conservative institution
11
 Race
 Numerous ethnic groups within a particular racial
group: Asian or European for example
 Cultural diversity amongst students is very high
 Educators need to be aware of diversity in curriculum
development
12
 Class
 American school is middle-class oriented
SHOULD MORE LOWER- AND UPPER- CLASS
SUBJECTS BE TAUGHT?
Ex: Black English or Ebonics, California -97
13
 Gender
 Historically males have been elevated through
education and females aggravated
 Many teachers favor boys, they get more time in
classroom interaction, but why?
 Caring conditions of female=jobs that require caring
 Aggressive, objective and devoid of emotions for
male=jobs that require these qualities
14
 Curriculum content gets biased due to gender
 Boys and girls are different biologically, but should this
be considered in the curricula?
 Today the information age, technologies are dominated
by men, the curricula need to promote gender equality
15
 New knowledge
 Every 15 years human knowledge doubles
 Half of what a person learns is not valid when they reach
middle age
 New knowledge needs to enter curriculum and old
knowledge kicked out
 New knowledge entering curriculum
need to be justified knowledge for future
16
 Organizing knowledge
 Subject centered vs. student centered
 Cognitive approach(process of thinking) vs. the
behaviorist(stimulus and response) or
humanist(emphasize whole person)
 Aristotle organized knowledge



Theoretical: science and math
Practical: politics and ethics
Productive: music and architecture
17
 Knowledge and future learning
 Basic subject should stay the same: 3 R’s etc…
 Knowledge should teach how to learn, not just facts
 Knowledge should be applicable to real world
 Knowledge should improve students self-awareness,
emotional maturity
 Knowledge should teach technology and bureaucracy of
today’s society
18
 How to process pressure of popular current beliefs,
various public groups with regard to what is good for
students and nation at large
 How history changes the education
19
 History
 Before the 20th century education had a perennialistic
outlook
 From the 1920s to the Sputnik era progressive education
was modern, subject matter was de-emphasized and
psychological, vocational and moral responsibilities was
stressed
 The influential Harvard Report came out at end of
World War II and said progressive education was good
20
 Sputnik put essentialism in motion in the US with
subject matter in focus and academically talented
student was a priority
 National Defense Act (1958), government spent money
on school, essentialism
 In the 1960s and 1970s, social conscience took a lead and
disadvantaged students were priority
 Slum schools and less able students got attention
21
 In 1970s disadvantaged meant: multicultural, bilingual,
handicapped and to some extend female
 Bilingual and multicultural education grow
22
 Steps for the reforming schools
 Make sure teachers know how to use new material
 Can scheduling of staff, students and buildings handle
new curriculum change
 Let the teacher be involved in changes
 Cooperate more with business and industry
23
 Charter school movement
 Franchising education to businesses, public groups, city
council, public universities
 Curricula can be developed for specific religion, ethnic
group, philosophy, arts focus, math-science-computer
focus
 All charter schools must meet state curricular guidelines
 Charter schools must attract students to stay alive
24
 Attention on educational excellence came back in
mid-1980s
 Problems found in reports made between 1983 and
1991
 Curriculum shifted away from core subjects
 Grade inflation on the rise, giving out
 Decline in SAT scores from 1963 to 1988
25
 International comparisons unfavorable
 25 million adults illiterate
 Student expenditures second
highest in the world
26
 Major policy reports recommendations
 Strengthen core subjects of English, math, science,
foreign language, and social studies
 Technology and computer courses need improvements
 Stress high level cognitive and thinking skills
 Tougher standards and tougher courses
 Increase teacher salaries and improve work environment
27
•Economic
•Control
•Technology
•Social/Demographic
 Financial support is the “life-blood” of education
 Major shifts in the nature of jobs are occurring.
 Workforce needs of the future are different
 Some jobs have gone away (manufacturing, etc)
29

Service jobs increasing


Lower pay
Few middle management openings
30
The “middle” of our society is declining, while rich and poor
are increasing. We are creating two workforces: one in
minimum wage jobs, the other in well-paying jobs. For
every new job created for a computer programmer, eight
new jobs are created for food service workers.
(Hodgkinson, 1992)
Political
Governmental
federal
state
local
32
 Aims of curricula will need to evolve with the
diverse and changing society
 Educational philosophy changes with the priorities
of society
 School has moved towards a more student centered
philosophy over the last decade
33

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Discussion

After reviewing Chapter 13 from the textbook, post a 500-word synopsis of your understanding of the marketing concepts. In your posting, include questions about any marketing concepts that are unclear.15 e
Chapter 13
Global Marketing
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter Outline
• The competitive advantage of nations
• Organizing for global marketing
• Programming for global marketing
• Entry and growth strategies for global marketing
© McGraw-Hill Education
Global Marketing
Firms invest in foreign countries for the same basic reasons they
invest in their own country
• Reasons vary from firm to firm but fall under the categories of
achieving offensive or defensive goals
Goals of Global Marketing
Offensive goals




Increase long-term growth and profit prospects
Maximize total sales revenue
Take advantage of economies of scale
Improve overall market position
Defensive goals





Compete with foreign companies on their own turf
Gain access to technological innovations in other countries
Take advantage of differences in operating costs
Preempt competitors’ global moves
Avoid being locked out of future markets by arriving too late
Jump to Goals of Global Marketing, Appendix
Figure 13.1: Porter’s Diamond of
National Advantage
Source: The Competitive Advantage of Nations by Michael E. Porter.
Jump to Figure 13.1: Porter’s Diamond of National Advantage, Appendix
Competitive Advantage of Nations
Factor conditions
• Nation’s ability to turn its natural resources, skilled labor, and
infrastructure into a competitive advantage
Demand conditions
• Nature of domestic demand and the sophistication of domestic customers
for the industry’s product or service
Related and supporting industries
• Existence or absence in the country of supplier and related industries that
are also internationally competitive
Company strategy, structure, and rivalry
• Conditions in the nation that govern how companies are created,
organized, and managed, and how intensely they compete domestically
Jump to Competitive Advantage of Nations, Appendix
Problems with Entering Foreign Markets, 1
Cultural misunderstanding
• Areas in which differences occur
• Communication
• Spatial boundaries
• Perception of time
• Behavior
• Managers must make the necessary efforts to learn, understand,
and adapt to the cultural norms of customers and managers and
sales team members in countries in which they do business
• Sensitivity to cultural differences is essential
Problems with Entering Foreign Markets, 2
Political uncertainty
• Government instability
• Social unrest
• Armed conflict
Import restrictions
• Tariffs, quotas, and other types of restrictions
• Established to promote self-sufficiency and can be a roadblock for
multinational firms
Problems with Entering Foreign Markets, 3
Exchange controls and ownership restriction
• Established by nations experiencing balance-of-payment problems
• Important considerations in the decision to expand into a foreign
market
Economic conditions
• Differences in economies due to political upheaval or social changes
Organizing the Multinational Company
Types global companies
• Multidomestic company: Pursues different strategies in each of its
foreign markets
• Global company: Views the world as one market and pits its
resources against competition in an integrated fashion
Alternatives to organizing global companies
• Worldwide product divisions
• Divisions responsible for all products sold within a geographic
region
• Matrix system that combines elements of both of these
arrangements
Factors Affecting Global Strategy
External factors




Market factors
Economic factors
Environmental factors
Competitive factors
Internal factors




Structure
Management processes
Culture
People
Jump to Factors Affecting Global Strategy, Appendix
Organizational Issues to Be Considered in Global
Marketing Research, 1
Population characteristics
• Demographic variables, such that the number and size of families,
education, occupation, and religion, are important
Ability to buy
• Gross national product or per capita national income
• Distribution of income
• Rate of growth in buying power
• Extent of available financing
Organizational Issues to Be Considered in Global
Marketing Research, 2
Willingness to buy
• Related to cultural values and attitudes, tastes, and habits
Differences in research tasks and processes
• Language
• Data content
• Timeliness
• Availability in the United States
Global Product Strategy
Global marketing research helps determine whether there is:
• Unsatisfied need for which a new product could be developed to
serve a foreign market
• Unsatisfied need that could be met with an existing domestic
product, either as is or adapted to the foreign market
Global Distribution Strategy
• Role of the distribution network is as important in foreign
markets as it is at home
• Channel arrangements range from no control to almost
complete control of the distribution system by manufacturers
• Influencing both home country and foreign country channels
is challenging
Global Pricing Strategy
Pricing task is more complicated in foreign markets because of
problems associated with tariffs, antidumping laws, taxes,
inflation, and currency conversion
Constraints
• Import duties
• Rigidity in price structures
Global Advertising Strategy
Issues related to advertising
• Language barrier
• Selection of media
• Limited media availability and their inability to reach out to potential
buyers
• Lack of accurate media information
• Type of agency to be used to prepare and place the firm’s
advertisements
Sales promotion
• Used as a strategy for bypassing restrictions on advertisements
placed by some foreign governments
• Effective means for reaching people in rural locations where media
support for advertising is virtually nonexistent
Entry and Growth Strategies for Global Marketing
Strategy depends on analysis of market opportunities, company
capabilities, degree of marketing involvement and commitment,
and risk tolerance
Company can decide to:
• Make minimal investments of funds and resources by limiting its
efforts to exporting
• Make large initial investments of resources and management effort
to try to establish a long-term share of global markets
• Take an incremental approach
Growth Strategies for Global Marketing: Exporting
Firm produces the product outside the final destination and then
ships it there for sale
Advantages
Disadvantages
• Avoids the cost of
establishing manufacturing
operations in the host
country
• It may help a firm achieve
experience-curve and
location economies
• Higher cost associated with
the process
• Necessity of the exporting
firm to pay import duties or
face trade barriers
• Delegation of marketing
responsibility for the product
to foreign agents
Jump to Growth Strategies for Global Marketing: Exporting, Appendix
Growth Strategies for Global Marketing: Licensing
Organization’s granting of patent rights, trademark rights, and
the right to use technological processes to foreign markets
Advantages
• Firm does not have to bear
the development costs and
risks associated with
opening up a foreign
market
• Attractive option in
unfamiliar or politically
volatile markets
Disadvantages
• Firm does not have tight
control over manufacturing,
marketing, and strategy
• There is the risk that foreign
companies may capitalize
on the licensed technology
Jump to Growth Strategies for Global Marketing: Licensing, Appendix
Growth Strategies for Global Marketing: Franchising and
Joint Ventures
Franchising: Franchisor sells limited rights to use its brand name
in return for a lump sum and share of the franchisee’s future
profits
• Employed by service firms, as opposed to manufacturing firms
• Offers an effective mix of centralized and decentralized decision
making
Joint ventures: Sharing management with one or more
collaborating foreign firms
Advantages and Disadvantages of Joint ventures
Advantages
• Firm may be able to benefit from a partner’s knowledge of the
host country
• Firm gains by sharing costs and risks of operating in a foreign
market
• Sole option when political considerations make joint ventures the
only feasible entry mode
• Firms can take advantage of a partner’s distribution system,
technological know-how, or marketing skills
Disadvantages
• Firm may risk giving up control of proprietary knowledge to its
partner
• Firm may lose the tight control over a foreign subsidiary needed to
engage in coordinated global attacks against rivals
Jump to Advantages and Disadvantages of Joint ventures, Appendix
Growth Strategies for Global Marketing: Strategic
Alliances
Partnerships where two or more firms invest in each other to
gain competitive advantages on a worldwide versus local level
Long term in nature
Advantages
• Reduced manufacturing costs, accelerated technological diffusion,
and new product development
• Legal and trade barriers can be overcome
Disadvantage: Increased risk of competitive conflict between the
partners
Growth Strategies for Global Marketing: Direct
Ownership
Establishment of a wholly owned subsidiary or acquisition where
it owns 100 percent of the stock
Advantages
• Complete control over its technology and operations
• Immediate access to foreign markets
• Instant credibility and gains in the foreign country
• Ability to install its own management team
Disadvantages: Huge costs and significant risks

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power point presentation

here is all you need for this assignment. Also, you did that research paper so it should be easy.Need a PowerPoint presentation and a Word file that include what I have to say
for each slide ( every single word). I will read the Word file as I go through the
PowerPoint presentation. May I have space between the words that I have to say
for each slide to recognize. For example:
Slide one:
(………………………)
Please follow the following instructions:
Final Presentation
1. Your presentation should include a linear (i.e., chronological) narrative of the
events crucial to your case, as well as a discussion of the ethical issues that are
raised by your case. In other words, for this presentation you will be both case
presenter and ethics presenter.
case presenter:
Organize that information into a linear narrative of what happened—with emphasis upon
the role played by the engineers in your case—and run through a vocal delivery of the
organized material a few times before presenting to the class. Your presentation should
be a polished and fluid piece of storytelling, and you should not need to rely heavily on
your notes or visual aids while delivering your narrative.
ethics presenter:
Your argument must address these questions:
* Which values (seem to have) guided the engineers in the case? What evidence is there
to support the identification of these particular values? * Whose interests were being
served or neglected by the decisions and/or actions of the engineers in the case?
* Should we share the values of the engineers in the case and/or their particular approach
to achieving or futhering these values? Why or why not?
* Were the decisions of the engineers in the case the best they could have made, given
what they knew at the time? Did any non-engineers interfere with the decision-making of
the engineers in the case?
* What can we learn from this case about how to resolve moral dilemmas that arise
within engineering work (i.e., the moral lessons of the case)?
Organize your answers into an argument about what should have happened—with
emphasis upon the decision-making of the engineers in your case—and run through a
vocal delivery of the organized material a few times before presenting to the class. Your
presentation should be a polished and fluid piece of persuasion, and you should not need
to rely on your notes or visual aids while delivering your argument.
2. Your presentation should follow the format of the research paper—you should
begin with your case narrative, then briefly identify the critical decisions, actions,
and values in your case before moving to your value analysis (i.e., your argument
about the ethics of the case). At least half of your presentation should be devoted
to offering your value analysis, so please give considerable time and attention to
this portion of your presentation.
3. Your presentation should last between 6 and 7 minutes. I suggest that you aim
for 6 minutes and 30 seconds. I will cut you off once you reach 7m01s, so please
practice your presentation to make sure that it will fall within the 6-7-minute
range. There will be a grade penalty for presentations that I have to cut short, and
for presentations that are shorter than 6 minutes.
5. Your presentation will be graded according to the rubric on the next page.
Grading Rubric for Final Presentation
Element
(Weight)
Knowledge
of the Case
(1)
Excellent
4 points
Good
3 points
Fair
2 points
Poor
1 point
Insufficient
0 points
Shows a deep/robust
understanding of the
particulars of the case.
Shows awareness of most
of the particulars of the
case, but demonstrates
some uncertainty.
Shows awareness of
some of the particulars of
the case, but
demonstrates many
uncertainties.
Shows only minimal
awareness of the
particulars of the case.
Uncertain about most key
elements.
Shows little or no
awareness of particulars
of the case. Seems
unprepared for
presentation.
Thorough
Account of
Case
(3)
Presents a comprehensive
account of the facts of the
case with excellent
attention to detail.
Presents an informed
account of the facts of the
case, but omits some
minor details.
Presents an informed
account of the facts of the
case, but omits some
crucial details.
Presents an uninformed
account of the case that
omits many crucial
details.
Presents an uninformed
account of the case
without attention to
detail.
Argument
(4)
Presents a comprehensive
argument about the
ethical issues involved in
the case, with excellent
attention to detail.
Presents an informed
argument about the
ethical issues involved in
the case, but some
elements of the argument
are unclear or
underdeveloped.
Presents an informed
argument about the
ethical issues involved in
the case, but many
elements of the argument
are unclear or
underdeveloped.
Presents an uninformed
argument about the
ethical issues involved in
the case, and most
elements of the argument
are unclear or
underdeveloped.
Does not present an
argument about the
ethical issues involved in
the case.
Evidence
(2)
Presents evidence that is
relevant and accurate.
Presents sufficient
amount of evidence from
sources to support
account of the case and
argument.
Presents evidence that is
mostly relevant and
mostly accurate. Presents
sufficient amount of
evidence from sources to
support account of the
case and argument.
Presents evidence that is
mostly irrelevant or
mostly inaccurate.
Presents limited evidence
from sources to support
account of the case and
argument.
Presents evidence that is
mostly irrelevant and
mostly inaccurate.
Presents limited evidence
from sources to support
account of the case and
argument.
Presents almost
exclusively irrelevant and
inaccurate evidence.
Does not present enough
evidence from sources to
support account of the
case and argument.
Structure
(2)
Presents an exceptionally
well-organized narrative
account of the case, and
an argument in which
relevant events and
details are emphasized.
Presents a well-organized
narrative account of the
case, and an argument in
which most relevant
events and details are
emphasized.
Presents a somewhat
unorganized narrative
account of the case,
and/or an argument in
which many relevant
events and details are
mentioned but not
emphasized.
Presents a mostly
unorganized narrative, or
non-narrative, account of
the case, and and
argument in which few
relevant events and
details are mentioned.
Presents an entirely
unorganized narrative, or
non-narrative, account of
the case, and an argument
in which almost no
relevant events and
details are mentioned.
Vocal
Delivery
(3)
Uses excellent vocal
variation, word choice,
intensity, and pacing.
Vocal expression is
natural, enthusiastic, and
avoids fillers (e.g., ‘um,’
‘uh,’ ‘like’).
Uses good vocal
variation, word choice,
intensity, and pacing.
Vocal expression is
somewhat less natural or
enthusiastic, but mostly
avoids fillers.
Uses uneven vocal
variation, word choice,
intensity, and/or pacing.
Vocal expression is
occasionally soft and/or
indistinct, and often uses
fillers.
Uses little or no vocal
variation and/or poor
word choice. Lacks
intensity and pacing.
Vocal expression is
mostly soft and indistinct.
Heavy use of fillers.
Speaks inaudibly or in
monotone, enunciates
poorly, lacks good word
choice, and uses poor
pacing. Vocal expression
is ineffective and
distracts audience with
fillers.
Body
Language &
Posture
(2)
Stands up straight and
appears confident and
relaxed. Stands in full
view of audience at all
times.
Stands up straight and
mostly appears confident
and relaxed. Mostly
stands in full view of
audience.
Stands up straight and
mostly appears confident
and relaxed. Frequently
stands out of full view of
audience.
Slouches or leans on
furniture, and appears
nervous and/or
underprepared. Only
occasionally stands in
full view of audience.
Slouches or leans on
furniture, and appears
nervous and/or
underprepared. Does not
stand in full view of
audience.
Eye Contact
(3)
Establishes eye contact
with audience during all
or almost all of
presentation.
Establishes eye contact
with audience during
most of presentation.
Establishes some eye
contact with audience,
but looks away too often.
Only occasionally
establishes eye contact
with audience.
Does not establish eye
contact with audience.
Style of
Delivery
(2)
Delivery is
conversational and
invites the audience to
take an interest in what is
being presented.
Delivery is mostly
conversational and
invites the audience to
take an interest in what is
being presented.
Delivery is mostly
conversational, but
mostly does not invite the
audience to take an
interest in what is being
presented.
Delivery is not primarily
conversational, but does
invite the audience to
take an interest in what is
being presented.
Delivery is not primarily
conversational, and does
not invite the audience to
take an interest in what is
being presented.
Length of
Presentation
(3)
Presentation was between
6 and 7 minutes long.
Presentation was cut off
after 7 minutes, or was 130 seconds too short.
Presentation was 31-60
seconds too short.
Presentation was 61-90
seconds too short.
Presentation was more
than 90 seconds too short.
Running head: DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
1
Dakota Access Pipeline (2014-present)
Institution Affiliation
Date
DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
2
Case narrative
The Dakota Access Pipeline refers to a 1, 172-mile pipeline that is underground used to
transport crude oil from the Bakken production area in North all the way to Patoka Illinois. The
pipeline has been operating safely from 2017. The pipeline has been transporting about 570,000
barrels of oil daily. The pipeline has been one of the safest ways to transport oil from a region that
is constrained geographically. Prior to this, there used to be so many cases of accidents as a result
of oil transportation. However, the project did not go as the engineers intended; it has in return
been the cause of a rallying point for Americans indigenous groups as well as other pipeline
opponents. There are several key players for the pipeline company,
a) The pipeline company- the pipeline company, is referred to as the Energy Transfer
Partners (ETP). It is a fortune 500 oil company as well as a natural gas company that is
located in Dallas. It owns most of the pipeline together with Sunoco Logistics partners and
the Philips 66.
b) The tribe (the protesters)- the tribe has built a lawsuit towards ETP for building the
pipeline. The tribe is of the idea that the pipeline is going to cause harm to the ancestral
land and cause more damage to the environment. Their main claim is the pipeline is going
to put the Missouri River, which is the reservation water source on danger. The protestors
state that the pipeline is also going to interfere with the sacred sites and the artefacts too.
This has resulted in a broader concern about the sovereignty and the rights of the tribe.
DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
3
c) The sheriff- The sheriff has also been a big key player of the case. The sheriff has been
the main face of law enforcement in Morton County. He has been accused by the protestors
of being sympathetic towards the pipeline workers as well as their private security.
d) Private Security- there has been a huge clash between the protesters and the private
security. The protestors, as well as the guards, have reported having faced some injuries.
The protestors state that they were threatened by the private security guards and that the
guard dogs bite them.
e) The governor- the governor has in the past urged the industry as well as the government
to build a lot of pipelines that will help to improve oil production in the state. The governor
has not been involved in the protests.
Morally Significant Decisions and Actions
The significant moral decision that was made by the engineers is to continue with the
construction despite the protests that it was facing. The engineers claim the pipeline is one of the
safest ways proven to transport oil as compared to the other traditional ways. They also claim that
the project has resulted in the creation of many jobs. Between December 2015 and January 2016,
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers published a document with its plan aimed at approving the
construction of the pipeline. In April 2016, the engineers stated that the construction of the pipeline
would cause no damage to the historic property.
Value of the Engineers
One of the key values that drove the engineers is innovation. The engineers were innovative
when they designed the pipeline, and they were determined to see the project through. The
engineers also have had a good reputation when it comes to such projects, and because of this, the
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DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
claims that they made were easily believed. Profit is another value that drove the engineers. This
is because the project is huge, and if it went through did stand to benefit a lot.
Part Two: Value Analysis
Better Decisions/Actions
In the Dakota access pipeline case, I believe the engineers would have made better
decisions. The decision to pursue the project was valid, but the decision-making process that led
to the commencing of the project was inadequate. The decision, in this case, was a very high
consequence, especially to the Native American community and the society at large. Therefore,
inclusion and engagement with the affected community were critical before commencing the
project. The engineers had a responsibility to work with the federal government in including the
local community as stakeholders in the project. The land that was used for the project belonged to
the Native American community, and therefore they were entitled to consultations.
The U.S. Army corps of engineers made the decision to pursue the project without
consultations with the community affected (Worland, 2017). I believe the engineers made a terrible
mistake, and this resulted in the mass actions and protests against the project. Inclusion and
engagement of the public could have given them a chance to understand their concerns and come
up with an adequate solution. The major concerns of the Native Americans were the health risk
posed by the pipeline that passed under the Missouri River.This concern would have been handled
before the project began by involving the public and explaining the measures taken to mitigate
such risks.
Better Values
Engineers in the Dakota case should be guided by various values in their decision-making
process. Engineers are faced with critical decisions in their day to day operations and therefore,
DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
5
effective decision making is necessary. However, there are certain values that are essential in
ensuring effective and efficient decision-making process (Basart & Serra, 2013). One of the most
significant values relevant for this case is respect for persons. This includes respect for other
people’s rights, cultures and opinions in regards to various projects. This value was critical, as it
would have resulted in more engagement with the local community. Engineers would have learnt
of their cultural values, especially respect for their native land and the graves in the land. Further,
they failed to recognize and respect the rights of the people, especially the rights involved in the
agreement between the Native Americans and the federal government. These instances made the
people feel disrespected and disregarded, pushing them to oppose the project.
Similarly, engineers should have been guided by the value of empathy. The engineers failed
to be empathetic and consider the opinions of the people in the area. They failed to consider the
historical oppression and the effect it had on the Native Americans in the past. The Native
Americans were in a historical struggle to protect their rights and land against oppression by the
American government. The engineers overlooked their struggles and failed to consider their points
of view in the development of the project. Consequently, it is caused by more bitter feelings for
the Native Americans causing them to block the completion of the project.
Engineers are guided by the values of justice in their operations, which was not considered
by engineers in this case. The engineers were not fair because they failed to consider the grievances
of the community and take time to address them. Instead, the engineers acted for their own benefit
overlooking the needs of the community.
Moral Lessons
The Dakota case presents engineers with an opportunity to learn from the mistakes U.S
army corps engineers made. The most significant moral lesson is the need to consider values in
DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
6
decision making for effective and sustainable decisions (Wike ,2001). Engineers need to consider
the values that are relevant in the decision-making process of a particular case. This is because
projects are different and can present different challenges, and therefore, it is critical to consider
the uniqueness of a particular project. For instance, the Dakota case was unique due to the historical
struggles the community has overcome in the past (Estes,2019). Therefore, overlooking these
struggles brought about oppositions and feelings of disrespect to the people.
Another moral lesson that the engineers can learn from the case is the importance of
conducting thorough research. This would have put the engineers at a better place, and they would
have a better understanding of the claims that the tribe was making. For instance, they would have
been well informed about the historical environment and what would cause harm to it.
Understanding the impact, the construction would have on the land; the engineers would have put
the necessary measures in place or gotten another location to build the pipeline—the other moral
lesson in teamwork and cooperation. Prior to the commencement of the project, the engineers
should have worked for hand in hand with the community. This would have helped them to look
at the project, from both the perspective of the construction company and that of the community
member. It would have therefore led to ease transition process where the project would flow well
without facing any challenges.
Similarly, engineers can learn the importance of engagement in the decision-making
process of their project. Engaging and including all the relevant stakeholders is critical in ensuring
that the project runs smoothly and is in line with the engineering principles. There are critical
consequences in leaving out relevant stakeholders in the project as this results in adverse
consequences. Importantly, engineers fail to feel satisfied and proud of their work due to the
DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
7
opposition by the people. Similarly, the projects may take longer as the people block the progress
of the project, protesting their exclusion in critical matters.
8
DAKOTA ACCESS PIPELINE
References
Basart, J. M., & Serra, M. (2013). Engineering ethics beyond engineers’ ethics. Science
and engineering ethics, 19(1), 179-187.
Estes, N. (2019). Our history is the future: Standing Rock versus the Dakota Access
Pipeline, and the long tradition of indigenous resistance. Verso.
Hersher, R. (2017, February 22). Key Moments In The Dakota Access Pipeline Fight.
Retrieved fromhttps://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/02/22/514988040/key-momentsin- the-dakota-access-pipeline-fight
The Associate Press. (2016, November 1). Key players in the Dakota Access pipeline fight
|
CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/dakota-standing-rock-pipeline-
key-players-1.3831131
Whyte, K. (2017). The Dakota Access pipeline, environmental injustice, and U.S.
colonialism. Red Ink: An International Journal of Indigenous Literature, Arts, & Humanities,
(19.1).
Wike, V. S. (2001). Professional engineering ethical behavior: a values-based approach.
age, 6, 1.
Worland, J. (2016, October 28). Dakota Access Pipeline: What to Know About the
Controversy. Retrieved from https://time.com/4548566/dakota-access-pipeline-standing-rocksioux/
Wolfley, J. (2018). Mni Wiconi, tribal sover…
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